Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals – Tribes and Climate Change Website – http://www4.nau.edu/tribalclimatechange/: This website provides information and resources tailored to helping Native people gain a better understanding of climate change and its impacts on their communities. The site includes basic climate-change information; profiles of tribes in diverse regions of the U.S., including Alaska, who are coping with climate change impacts; audio files of elders discussing the issue from traditional perspectives; and resources and contacts to use in developing climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.
Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Plan Template: ITEP’s tribal climate change adaptation plan template serves as a resource for Tribes as they develop climate change adaptation plans. The template provides guidelines and suggestions for writing plans and includes key terms and additional resources. The template is intended to be used for organizing and presenting information but is not meant to create a “one-size fits-all” plan, as each Tribe will have unique needs and approaches to planning for climate change. Please contact Sue Wotkyns (Susan.Wotkyns@nau.edu), ITEP’s Climate Change Program Manager, to request the template, which is available as a Microsoft Word document file. Please include your name, Tribe or organization, and your contact information when requesting the template.
ITEP Tribal Clean Energy Resource Center (TCERC): TCERC is a research center working to support clean energy in tribal communities. TCERC’s mission is to foster the transition of Native American tribes and Alaskan Native Villages from fossil fuel to renewable energy and clean energy through development and research of clean energy technologies. They offer a variety of resources and support for tribal energy programs. For more information, go to: www4.nau.edu/itep/tcerc/
Centre for Indigenous Climate Change Resources – http://www.cier.ca/: The Centre for Indigenous Climate Change Resources is a Canadian national, First Nation-directed environmental non-profit organisation established in 1994 by a group of First Nation Chiefs from across Canada. Through its programs, the Centre takes action on climate change, builds sustainable communities, protects lands and waters, and conserves biodiversity.
University of Colorado Law and CIRES –http://www.tribesandclimatechange.org/: CU’s Native Communities and Climate Change project works to support climate change adaptation planning by American Indian tribes and their partners. The project website includes a searchable database of relevant documents.
Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange – http://www.cakex.org/: The Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) is a joint effort by EcoAdapt and Island Press to create an innovative community of practice on climate change adaptation. CAKE is intended to support individuals interested in developing the discipline of adaptation to climate change by: facilitating the identification of important information and its accessibility; Building a community via an interactive online platform; Connecting practitioners to share knowledge and strategies; and Networking with other relevant materials around the web.
Climate Impacts Research Consortium (CIRC) – http://pnwclimate.org: The Climate Impacts Research Consortium (CIRC) provides information and tools for making decisions about landscape and watershed management in a changing climate.. The CIRC is a consortium of three multi-university organizations: The Oregon Climate Change Research Institute, including Oregon State University and the University of Orego; Idaho’s project on Water Resources in a Changing Climate, including University of Idaho and Boise State University; and the University Extension Services from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington including Oregon and Washington Sea Grant programs.
Climate Impacts Group – http://cses.washington.edu/cig/: The Climate Impacts Group (CIG) is an internationally recognized interdisciplinary research group studying the impacts of natural climate variability and global climate change (“global warming”). Research at the CIG considers climate impacts at spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire western U.S. region, with most work focused on the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Through research and interaction with stakeholders, the CIG works to increase community and ecosystem resilience to fluctuations in climate. Climate Impacts on Washington State: An overview of key risks (2014)
Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission – http://www.critfc.org/wana/climate.html: The Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission and its member tribes are aggressively addressing climate change and its effects on tribal fisheries and water resources, as well as other natural and cultural resources. CRITFC is supporting tribal adaptation and mitigation efforts through collaboration, coordination and development of science and technology (i.e. conducting technical research on climate change impacts on tribal lands), and development and coordination of tribal mitigation and adaptation strategies and actions in state, federal and other venues.
EcoAdapt –http://www.ecoadapt.org/: EcoAdapt brings together diverse players in the conservation, policy, science, and development communities to reshape conservation and resource management in response to rapid climate change. EcoAdapt’s main objectives include: Building the field of adaptation by coordinating, magnifying, and making climate change adaptation capacity and resources more accessible; Building capacity of current and future professionals in conservation, planning, and development so they can engage in climate change adaptation; and Supporting implementation of adaptation strategies by providing capacity to partners eager to take climate adaptation action.
Indigenous Stewardship Methods and NRCS Conservation Practices guidebook: http://www.fws.gov/nativeamerican/Publications.html: The Indigenous Stewardship Methods and NRCS Conservation Practices guidebook provides guidance to employees of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and to indigenous cooperators who work with NRCS. It provides a sensitive process in which knowledge is shared, allowing employees to incorporate the indigenous knowledge into NRCS’ assistance through its conservation practices.
Landscape Conservation Cooperatives seek to identify best practices, connect efforts, identify gaps, and avoid duplication through improved conservation planning and design. Partner agencies and organizations coordinate with each other while working within their existing authorities and jurisdictions. The three LCC’s in the Pacific Northwest include the North Pacific LCC – http://http://northpacificlcc.org/, the Great Basin LCC – http://www.blm.gov/id/st/en/prog/Great_Basin_LCC.html and the Great Northern LCC – http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/gnlcc.
Our Natural Resources – http://www.ournaturalresources.org/: ONR – Our Natural Resources – (pronounced Honor) is an alliance of tribal natural resources organizations and tribes committed to develop and advance a national tribal natural resources strategy. Its mission is to protect and utilize the health and productivity of the natural resources to ensure the well-being of tribal cultures, communities, economies, health of future generations while enhancing sovereignty.
PNW Climate Change Collaboration – http://www.c3.gov/: The Pacific Northwest Climate Change Collaboration (C3) is intended to better organize, integrate and focus the federal community’s efforts to address the effects of climate change on natural resources in the Pacific Northwest region; foster collaborative efforts between research, management and regulatory agencies and programs (“knowledge-to-action”); and provide a portal to the federal climate change community in the Pacific Northwest, for states, academic organizations, tribal organizations and others. C3 agencies have also collaborated on the Pacific Northwest Climate Change Inventory. The inventory includes information on research tools, models, modeled scenarios, monitoring programs/projects and assessments related to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest. http://www.c3.gov/PNW_inventory.cfm.
Northwest Climate Science Center – http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/science.cfm. The Department of the Interior’s Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 to blend recognized academic expertise and federal resources to provide scientific information and tools necessary to address federal, state, and tribal resource managers’ priorities in response to a changing climate. The NW CSC is supported by a consortium of Northwest academic institutions that offer capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts assessment, modeling, and advanced information technology, all of which are necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. The geographic area generally encompassed by the NW CSC includes terrestrial, freshwater and near-shore marine ecosystems in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The NW CSC FY2012 Annual Science Work Plan is available for review at http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/news/NW-CSC-FY2012-Annual-Science-Work-Plan.cfm.
Rural Voices for Conservation Coalition
RVCC is comprised of western rural and local, regional, and national organizations that have joined together to promote balanced conservation-based approaches to the ecological and economic problems facing the West. RVCC maintains a web resource on climate change policy for rural communities and landscapes in the Western U.S at http://ruralclimate.wordpress.com/. Sustainable Northwest recently published The Cowboy, The Outlaw, and The Kid, a series of stories profiling individual and community actions in response to climate change in rural America. http://www.sustainablenorthwest.org/resources/the-cowboy-the-outlaw-and-the-kid
University of Oregon Environmental and Natural Resources Law Program – http://enr.uoregon.edu/: The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is the Environmental and Natural Resources Law Program’s response to the current climate crisis, hosted and driven by the fellows of the Global Environmental Democracy Project. The goal of CCI is to inform, educate and connect law students, practitioners, and policymakers to emerging developments in climate law and policy.
US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station – http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/research/climate-change/index.shtml: The Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station is one of seven research centers that are part of the USDA Forest Service. The PNW Reserach Station is engaged in a variety of climate-change related research activities, including co-partnering with the University of Oregon’s Environmental Studies Program on this website.
USDA Forest Service Climate Change Resource Center – http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/index.shtml
The Climate Change Resource Center (CCRC) is a reference Web site for resource managers and decisionmakers who need information and tools to address climate change in planning and project implementation. Changing climates have already catalyzed changes in environments throughout the United States, and future effects are expected to be greater. Although future scenarios are daunting, managers can do much to promote adaptation to climate change and encourage reduction of human effects on climate. Current topics and resources include:
– Climate Change Assessments – http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/topics/assessments/
– A System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) to Climate Change – http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/37850
– Interactive Education Module on Climate Change Science and Modeling: http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/climate-basics/education.shtml
Wisdom of the Elders – http://wisdomoftheelders.org/
Committed to Native American cultural sustainability, multimedia education and race reconciliation, Wisdom of the Elders, Inc. (Wisdom) records and preserves the oral history, cultural arts, language concepts, and traditional ecological knowledge of exemplary American Indian historians, cultural leaders and environmentalists in collaboration with arts and cultural organizations and educational institutions. Wisdom of the Elders especially seeks to correct misconceptions, end prejudice, bring health and wellness to Native people, and demonstrate how Indian culture has and is continuing to enrich our worlds.
Tools and Resources:
3rd Annual Pacific Northwest Climate Science Conference Proceedings
The Conference covered a diverse range of climate change topics, with panels covering Columbia Basin impacts and adaptations, hydrology, agriculture, conservation, climate variability, vulnerability assessments, climate change communication, terrestrial issues, aquatic issues, adaptation and human health. Presentations and research posters are available online: http://pnwclimateconference.org/presentations/AgendaWithPresentations.pdf
Climate Change Response: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
This webpage is dedicated to describing FWS’s climate change strategy, including adaptation, mitigation and engagement. Included is a link to the FWS plan for climate change response. More information at: http://www.fws.gov/home/climatechange/strategy.html.
National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy
The National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy will provide a unified approach—reflecting shared principles and science-based practices—for reducing the negative impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, plants, habitats and associated ecological processes across geographic scales. It is an inter-agency effort that brings together all levels of government with tribal nations to develop a common strategy for dealing with climate challenges. For more information, and access to a public review draft of the adaptation strategy, go to: http://www.wildlifeadaptationstrategy.gov/ .
FWS Climate Change Information Toolkit
A key part of the FWS’s climate change strategy is to inform FWS staff about the impacts of accelerating climate change and to engage partners and others in seeking collaborative solutions. With that in mind, the FWS has created a toolkit of resources, found at: http://www.fws.gov/home/climatechange/toolkit.html.
Safeguarding Wildlife from Climate Change Web Conference Series
The FWS and National Wildlife Federation have developed a series of web conferences to increase communication and transfer of technical information between conservation professionals regarding the growing challenges of climate change. Presentations and research are available online, and discuss a diverse range of conversation themed topics from research on specific landscapes and conversation challenges, to more specific discussions of impediments to conservation. The presentations and more information can be found at: http://training.fws.gov/CSP/Resources/climate_change/safeguarding_bc.html .
Skagit Watershed Council 2012 Workshop Proceedings
The Skagit Watershed Council has held a workshop focused on climate change and its potential impacts on salmon and salmon habitats. They have made the resources from this workshop available; presentations focus on effects to marine ecosystem health in the Skagit watershed. PDFs of the presentation are available at: www.skagitclimatescience.org/skagit-watershed-council-sc2-2012-workshop/.
FY 2012 Climate Science Center Funded Projects
Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced funding of more than $10 million awarded by Interior’s regional Climate Science Centers (CSC) to universities or other partners for research to guide managers of parks, refuges and other resources in planning how to help species and ecosystems adapt to climate change. Of the 69 funded projects, the following projects involve tribes either as PIs or as Cooperators and Partners: Northwest CSC-Marshes to Mudflats: Climate Change Effects Along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Pacific Northwest (Nisqually Indian Tribe, Skokomish Indian Tribe); Correlation and Climate Sensitivity of Human Health and Environmental Indicators in the Salish Sea (Swinomish Indian Tribal Community); Utilizing Yurok Traditional Ecological Knowledge to inform Climate Change Priorities (Yurok Tribe). South Central CSC-Inter-Tribal Workshops on Climate Variability and Change (Chickasaw Nation, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma). In addition, a Southwest CSC-funded project has a tribal focus: Southwest Climate Change Vulnerability of Native Americans in the Southwest. More information on these projects can be found at: https://nccwsc.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/files/FY12_CSC_Funded_Projects_for_Release_10-1-12FINAL.pdf
Publications of Interest
Articles from the Special Issue of the Climatic Change Journal
Wildcat, D (2013) Introduction: climate change and indigenous peoples of the USA. This article is part of a Special Issue on “Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples in the United States: Impacts, Experiences, and Actions” edited by Julie Koppel Maldonado, Rajul E. Pandya, and Benedict J. Colombi. Climatic Change 120:509-515. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-0849-6. View Article
Cochran P, Huntington OH, Pungowiyi C, Tom S, Chapin FS, Huntington HP, Maynard NG, Trainor SF (2013) Indigenous Frameworks for Observing and Responding to Climate Change in Alaska. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0735-2 Abstract: Despite a keen awareness of climate change, northern Indigenous Peoples have had limited participation in climate-change science due to limited access, power imbalances, and differences in worldview. A western science emphasis on facts and an indigenous emphasis on relationships to spiritual and biophysical components indicate important but distinct contributions that each knowledge system can make. Indigenous communities are experiencing widespread thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion exacerbated by loss of protective sea ice. These climate-induced changes threaten village infrastructure, water supplies, health, and safety. Climate-induced habitat changes associated with loss of sea ice and with landscape drying and extensive wildfires interact with northern development to bring both economic opportunities and environmental impacts. A multi-pronged approach to broadening indigenous participation in climate-change research should: 1) engage communities in design- ing climate-change solutions; 2) create an environment of mutual respect for multiple ways of knowing; 3) directly assist communities in achieving their adaptation goals; 4) promote partnerships that foster effective climate solutions from both western and indigenous perspectives; and 5) foster regional and international networking to share climate solutions.
Gautam M, Chief K, Smith WJ (2013) Climate Change in Arid Lands and Native American Socioeconomic Vulnerability: The Case of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0737-0 Abstract: The case of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe exemplifies tribal vulnerabilities as a result of climate change. Preliminary socio-economic data and analysis reveal that the tribe’s vulnerability to climate change is related to cultural and economic dependence on Pyramid Lake, while external socio-economic vulnerability factors influence adaptive capacity and amplify potential impacts. Reduced water supplies as a consequence of climate change would result in a compounded reduction of inflows to Pyramid Lake, thus potentially impacting the spawning and sustenance of a cultural livelihood, the endangered cui-ui fish (Chasmistes cujus). Meanwhile, limited economic opportunities and dwindling federal support constrain tribal adaptive capacity. Factors that contribute to tribal adaptive capacity include: sustainability-based values, technical capacity for natural resource management, proactive initiatives for the control of invasive-species, strong external scientific networks, and remarkable tribal awareness of climate change.
Grah O, Beaulieu J (2013) The Effect of Climate Change on Glacier Ablation and Baseflow Support in the Nooksack River Basin and Implications on Pacific Salmon Species Protection and Recovery. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0747-y
Abstract: The Nooksack Indian Tribe (Tribe) inhabits the area around Deming, Washington, in the northwest corner of the state. The Tribe is dependent on various species of Pacific salmonids that inhabit the Nooksack River for ceremonial, commercial, and subsistence purposes. Of particular importance to the Tribe are spring Chinook salmon. Since European arrival, the numbers of fish that return to spawn have greatly diminished because of substantial loss of habitat primarily due to human-caused alteration of the watershed. Although direct counts are not available, it is estimated that native salmonid runs are less than 8 % of the runs in the late 1800’s. In addition, climate change has caused and will continue to cause an increase in winter flows, earlier snowmelt, decrease in summer baseflows, and an increase in water temperatures that exceed the tolerance levels, and in some cases lethal levels, of several Pacific salmonid species. The headwaters of the Nooksack River originate from glaciers on Mount Baker that have experienced significant changes over the last century due to climate change. Melt from the glaciers is a major source of runoff during the low-flow critical summer season, and climate change will have a direct effect on the magnitude and timing of stream flow in the Nooksack River. Under- standing these changes is necessary to protect the Pacific salmonid species from the harmful effects of climate change. All nine salmonid species that inhabit the Nooksack River will be adversely affected by reduced summer flows and increased temperatures. The most important task ahead is the planning for, and implementation of, habitat restoration prior to climate change becoming more threatening to the survival of these important fish species. The Tribe has been collaboratively working with government agencies and scientists on the effects of climate change on the hydrology of the Nooksack River. The extinction of salmonids from the Nooksack River is unacceptable to the Tribe since it is dependent on these species and the Tribe is place-based and cannot relocate to areas where salmon will survive.
Lynn K, Daigle J, Hoffman J, Lake F, Michelle N, Ranco D, Viles C, Voggesser G, Williams P (2013) The Impacts of Climate Change on Tribal Traditional Foods. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0736-1 Abstract: American Indian and Alaska Native tribes are uniquely affected by climate change. Indigenous peoples have depended on a wide variety of native fungi, plant and animal species for food, medicine, ceremonies, community and economic health for count- less generations. Climate change stands to impact the species and ecosystems that constitute tribal traditional foods that are vital to tribal culture, economy and traditional ways of life. This paper examines the impacts of climate change on tribal traditional foods by providing cultural context for the importance of traditional foods to tribal culture, recognizing that tribal access to traditional food resources is strongly influenced by the legal and regulatory relationship with the federal government, and examining the multi-faceted relationship that tribes have with places, ecological processes and species. Tribal participation in local, regional and national climate change adaption strategies, with a focus on food-based resources, can inform and strengthen the ability of both tribes and other governmental resource managers to address and adapt to climate change impacts.
Maldonado JK, Shearer C, Bronen R, Peterson K, Lazrus H (2013) The Impact of Climate Change on Tribal Communities in the US: Displacement, Relocation, and Human Rights. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0746-z Abstract: Tribal communities in the United States, particularly in coastal areas, are being forced to relocate due to accelerated rates of sea level rise, land erosion, and/or permafrost thaw brought on by climate change. Forced relocation and inadequate governance mechanisms and budgets to address climate change and support adaptation strategies may cause loss of community and culture, health impacts, and economic decline, further exacerbating tribal impoverishment and injustice. Sovereign tribal communities around the US, however, are using creative strategies to counter these losses. Taking a human rights approach, this article looks at communities’ advocacy efforts and strategies in dealing with climate change, displacement, and relocation. Case studies of Coastal Alaska and Louisiana are included to consider how communities are shaping their own relocation efforts in line with their cultural practices and values. The article concludes with recommendations on steps for moving forward toward community-led and government-supported resettlement programs.
Voggesser, G., K. Lynn, J. Daigle, F. K. Lake, and D. Ranco. “Cultural Impacts to Tribes from Climate Change Influences on Forests.” Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0733-4
Climate change related impacts, such as increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, higher temperatures, extreme changes to ecosystem processes, forest conversion and habitat degradation are threatening tribal access to valued resources. Climate change is and will affect the quantity and quality of resources tribes depend upon to perpetuate their cultures and livelihoods. Climate impacts on forests are expected to directly affect culturally important fungi, plant and animal species, in turn affecting tribal sovereignty, culture, and economy. This article examines the climate impacts on forests and the resulting effects on tribal cultures and resources. To understand potential adaptive strategies to climate change, the article also explores traditional ecological knowledge and historical tribal adaptive approaches in resource management, and contemporary examples of research and tribal practices related to forestry, invasive species, traditional use of fire and tribal-federal coordination on resource management projects. The article concludes by summarizing tribal adaptive strategies to climate change and considerations for strengthening the federal-tribal relationship to address climate change impacts to forests and tribal valued resources.
Whyte K (2013) Justice Forward: Tribes, climate adaptation and responsibility. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0743-2 Federally-recognized tribes must adapt to many ecological challenges arising from climate change, from the effects of glacier retreat on the habitats of culturally significant species to how sea leave rise forces human communities to relocate. The governmental and social institutions supporting tribes in adapting to climate change are often constrained by political obstructions, raising concerns about justice. Beyond typical uses of justice, which call attention to violations of formal rights or to considerations about the degree to which some populations may have caused anthropogenic climate change, a justice framework should guide how leaders, scientists and professionals of all heritages and who work with or for federally-recognized tribes understand what actions are morally essential for supporting tribes’ adaptation efforts. This paper motivates a shift to a forward-looking framework of justice. The framework situates justice within the systems of responsibilities that matter to tribes and many others, which range from webs of inter-species relationships to government-to-government partnerships. Justice is achieved when these systems of responsibilities operate in ways that support the continued flourishing of tribal communities.
Williams T, Hardison P (2013) Culture, law, risk and governance: contexts of traditional
knowledge in climate change adaptation. Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0850-0
Traditional knowledge is increasingly recognized as valuable for adaptation to climate change, bringing scientists and indigenous peoples together to collaborate and exchange knowledge. These partnerships can benefit both researchers and indigenous peoples through mutual learning and mutual knowledge generation. Despite these benefits, most descriptions focus on the social contexts of exchange. The implications of the multiple cultural, legal, risk-benefit and governance contexts of knowledge exchange have been less recognized. The failure to consider these contexts of knowledge exchange can result in the promotion of benefits while failing to adequately address adverse consequences. The purpose of this article is to promote awareness of these issues to encourage their wider incorporation into research, policy, measures to implement free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) and the development of equitable adaptation partnerships between indigenous peoples and researchers.
Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the U.S. Forest Sector This report is a scientific assessment of the current condition and likely future condition of forest resources in the US relative to climatic variability and change. It serves as the U.S. Forest Service forest sector technical report for the National Climate Assessment and includes descriptions of key regional issues and examples of a risk-based framework for assessing climate-change effects. By the end of the 21st century, forest ecosystems in the United States will differ from those of today as a result of changing climate. December 2012. www.usda.gov/oce/climate_change/effects_2012/FS_Climate1114%20opt.pdf
Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation
This report presents information that enables framing and evaluation of existing vulnerabilities of U.S agriculture to climate change and adaptation strategies. Timeframes for the assessments are the present, 25 years in future, and 90 years in future. February 2013. www.usda.gov/oce/climate_change/effects_2012/effects_agriculture.htm
Book Announcement: Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples – The Search for Legal Remedies.
Edited by Randall S. Abate, Associate Professor of Law and Project Director, Environment, Development and Justice Program, Florida A&M University College of Law and Elizabeth Ann Kronk, Associate Professor of Law and Director, Tribal Law and Government Center, University of Kansas School of Law, US. See attached information flyer.
Book Announcement: Excerpt from Asserting Native Resilience: Pacific Rim Indigenous Nations Face the Climate Crises
Edited by Zoltán Grossman and Alan Parker. Book information available at: http://osupress.oregonstate.edu/book/asserting-native-resilience. Excerpt reprinted by permission of Oregon State University Press at http://www.terrain.org/articles/30/grossman.htm